Causes of BDSM
The reason for sadism and masochism is the need to respond to the desire for dominance, anxiety, guilt. The object of attraction may in some ways be subjected to aggression or be considered a source of punishment if it resembles a significant image in childhood, with which incestuous feelings are associated. Aggression is the biological basis of sadism (predator’s position), and submissiveness (submission, victimization (victim’s position) is the biological base of masochism. For the development of sado-masochism, the coincidence of punishment and an erotically significant image, as well as the image of a dominant figure (mother, father), are important.
Symptoms of BDSM
With sadism, the patient enjoys and releases sexuality in an effort to hurt, humiliate, put another or others (a homosexual or heterosexual object) in a position of submission (dependence) on himself. With masochism, the patient enjoys and releases sexuality when he is hurt, humiliated by another or others (a homosexual or heterosexual object), and when he is placed in the position of victim and submission (dependence) on himself. Sometimes the behavior consists in changing the position of the predator to the position of the victim or in combining them during one sexual contact.
Diagnosis of BDSM
Sadism is such sexual activity, which involves, at the end of the relationship with a partner, inflicting pain, humiliation and establishing dependency on him, masochism involves similar actions, but aimed at the individual himself.
It is necessary to differentiate sado-masochism with personality anomalies from an isolated disorder in the form of sado-masochism.
Treatment for BDSM
Psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, psychoanalysis.