What are Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to Alcohol?
During the life of alcohol, at least once in a lifetime, 95% of the population consumes alcohol, 5% consume alcohol daily, but alcoholism develops in approximately 1% of the population. In women, alcoholism is less common, but is more malignant. There are ethnic differences in the strength of drinks consumed, for example, in an African country such as Ghana, 10 times more beer is consumed per capita per day than the average in Europe, and 10 times more red dry wine in France than in Russia. The strength of consumed drinks generally increases from the equator to the North Pole, but does not increase from the equator to the South Pole.
Causes of Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to Alcohol
The basis of alcoholism is biological, social, psychological reasons. Biological causes are the genetic determination of alcoholism, the relationship between alcoholism and serotonin deficiency and the inadequate ability of the brain to oxidize aldehydes. The level of alcohol dehydrogenase varies significantly among different ethnic groups and is clearly, for example, higher among the Slavs, compared with the Paleo-African and Turkic groups. It is also believed that a lack of norepinephrine and an excess of dopamine can contribute to alcoholic psychoses. Probably, alcoholism is associated with hypothetical alcohol, the dopamine 2 receptor gene allele. There are families in which alcoholism is transmitted in a dominant, recessive manner, sexually linked, or occurs like a mutation. In the blood of patients with alcoholism, the level of tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin, is lower.
The social causes of alcoholism are stress, family maladaptation, a decline in the economic level, and imitation of others in childhood and adolescence. The psychological reason is the use of alcohol as a drug that improves communication, as an antidepressant, to reduce anxiety. Therefore, alcoholism is often a mask of affective disorders. In addition, some personality traits in themselves can be leveled by the intake of alcohol, although alcoholism usually further aggravates them.
Symptoms of Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to Alcohol
Inadequate behavior, euphoria, slurred, often accelerated speech, loss of fine coordination, unsteady gait, nystagmus, redness of the skin of the body. For the diagnosis of alcohol intoxication, methods are used to determine alcohol in exhaled air (Rappoport and Mokhov-Shinkarenko tests). Using gas-liquid chromatography and spectrometry, alcohol is determined in the blood and urine, as well as in the contents of the stomach. Light intoxication corresponds to 0.5-1.5 g / l [A constant endogenous background of alcohol associated with metabolism is the background of 0.02 g / l.] Blood alcohol, moderate – 1.5-3 g / l, severe intoxication – 3-5 g / l. Higher doses can be fatal. Distinguish between simple, atypical and pathological intoxication. The cause of the atypicality of intoxication is the organic background, the coincidence of intoxication with an abnormal affective background or the reception, together with alcohol, of other psychoactive drugs, for example, clonidine or tranquilizers.
As a result of alcohol consumption, social decline and maladaptation are noted, symptoms of somatic changes from the side of the liver, brain, and cardiovascular system are more often found, a personality changes whose interests are fixed on the circle of alcohol intake. Usually, the symptoms of somatic disorders are masked by the use of alcohol, but after stopping the use of alcohol, patients begin to complain about them.